Cree’s New High-Intensity Class of LEDs More than Doubles Performance

Featuring Cree’s innovative new primary optic design that radically reduces optical source size by more than 50 percent, the XLamp XP-L High Intensity LED delivers unprecedented candela at 185 lumens per watt at one watt. The new High Intensity LED offers a drop-in ready upgrade for XP-based luminaire designs, enabling manufacturers to achieve higher luminous intensity with minimal redesign to accelerate time to market.

“The XP-L High Intensity LED looks like a great option for some of our upcoming lights,” said Jon Quenzer, Electrical Engineer, Trek. “The XP-L High Intensity LED allows us to boost the efficacy and intensity of our XP-G2 LED based designs without changing optics or drivers.”

“The XP-L High Intensity LED exemplifies Cree’s commitment to relentless innovation by delivering both lumens and unprecedented intensity in a small form factor,” said Dave Emerson, vice president and general manager for Cree LEDs. “The XP-L High Intensity LED will allow lighting designers to fundamentally change the way they think about using LEDs in high intensity lighting and enable lighting manufacturers to reach performance levels previously not possible.”

Characterized and binned at 1050 mA, 85°C, the XP-L High Intensity LED is available in up to 90 CRI and color temperatures ranging from 2700 K to 8300 K. 6,000 hours of LM-80 long-term testing data is available for the XP-L High Intensity LED for lighting manufacturers seeking ENERGY STAR® qualification.

Product samples are available now and production quantities are available with standard lead times. Please visit http://ift.tt/1AjMwiH for additional information.

About Cree:
Cree is leading the LED lighting revolution and making energy-wasting traditional lighting technologies obsolete through the use of energy-efficient, mercury-free LED lighting. Cree is a market-leading innovator of lighting-class LEDs, LED lighting, and semiconductor products for power and radio frequency (RF) applications.
Cree’s product families include LED fixtures and bulbs, blue and green LED chips, high-brightness LEDs, lighting-class power LEDs, power-switching devices and RF devices. Cree® products are driving improvements in applications such as general illumination, backlighting, electronic signs and signals, power suppliers and solar inverters.
For additional product and company information, please refer to www.cree.com.

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Why is Greenpeace India having to fight a Government crackdown?

Government crackdown = greenpeace shutdown

Over the last 15 years, Greenpeace India has had some important victories. We have worked to get clean air, clean water and clean energy for the country. In doing so, we have challenged the fossil fuel industry and held some corporations accountable. Sometimes, we disagreed with the government too. This has now earned us the wrath of India’s Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA).

The MHA’s biggest criticism today is that Greenpeace India is ‘anti-development’. Because we don’t want to see environmental laws diluted and a vision of development that comes at the cost of forests, communities and biodiversity, we stand accused of wanting to stop India’s economic growth.

But a future that depends on fossil fuels is not the way forward, and we’ve shown that development can be brought with renewables, as in Dharnai. And we stood with the people of Mahan who wanted to protect their forest, on which their livelihoods depend rather than see it turned into a coal mine.

It feels to us that we might be facing this onslaught today because we asked some tough questions of some powerful people. Whether it was the Essar group who wanted to raze a forest for a coal mine, or Adani — the company eager to mine the Galilee basin for coal resulting in irreversible damage to the Great Barrier Reef — Greenpeace has not been afraid to speak out. But speaking out comes at a price and now we are now fighting for our right to exist.

What’s already happened to Greenpeace India?

Greenpeace India has had a dramatic time since June 2014. The Ministry of Home Affairs in India, has made a number of allegations and taken a series of steps against Greenpeace India, and we believe it will continue finding ways to make life difficult for us.

These include accusing Greenpeace India of running deliberate campaigns to hurt the economy, which are ‘anti-national and harmful to India. They’ve stopped donations from outside of India, and prevented one of our campaigners from travelling abroad. Finally, in April this year, Greenpeace India’s domestic accounts were blocked, making it impossible for Greenpeace India to pay staff wages and office costs.

What reasons do the MHA give for their actions? If you’ve done nothing illegal, surely the courts will support you?

The MHA has used shaky reasoning to justify its actions and the judiciary has ruled in our favour over and over again.

After the MHA had blocked access to funds coming from abroad we challenged them in the Delhi High Court. In January this year the court ruled in our favour – finding the MHA’s actions ‘unconstitutional, illegal and arbitrary’.

Campaigner Priya Pillai took the government to court over restrictions it had placed on her movement and travel. In March, The judge ordered those restrictions to be lifted, saying ‘you can’t muzzle dissent in a democracy.’

In April, the MHA blocked our domestic accounts – which amount to 70% of our funds – claiming that we were guilty of several legal violations. We are not. You can read all of the alleged errors and rebuttals here.

On 27 May 2015, The Delhi High Court ordered that we have access to two of the previously blocked accounts so our work can continue for now. However the case is not closed so our position remains precarious with a final hearing expected in August.

As we believe that this is not really about accounting errors and legal violations but the MHA wanting to silence us because they don’t like what we’re saying, we’d be surprised if more arbitrary attacks don’t come our way.

Greenpeace India doesn’t want to spend time fighting court cases – we want to get back to work moving India towards a more sustainable future. The sooner we can meet with the MHA to discuss how we can be part of that future the better.

For this reason we still need to stand up for the right to free speech everywhere and ask the UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon to do the same.

Sondhya Gupta is a Mobilisation Campaigner for Greenpeace UK.

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Global Warming Update

March 2015 was the warmest March in a 136 years of records, and CO2 levels are now higher than they have been in 800,000 years. If you are an environmental activist, or someone who cares and wants to help, you may find yourself confronting a denialist campaign that sows doubt and confusion. Here is some useful information about the current state of global warming.

Dry Farmland in MongoliaFarmer Zhang Dadi in his dry corn field in Mongolia. Global warming has stricken farmers around the world. © Qiu Bo / Greenpeace.

Doubt: Petroleum interests and paid denialist employ scientific doubt to rationalize non-action, but this is a trick. Scientific knowledge is built on doubt. Every process in nature involves multiple influences, no observer knows all the factors, and everything science knows is framed by a margin of doubt. Nevertheless, science has observed enough to know that global warming is real, and that the primary cause is human activity.

The fundamental hypothesis: In 1896, using known observations of energy radiance and conduction, Swedish chemist Svente Arrhenius introduced the fundamental postulate: “If the quantity of carbonic acid [CO2] increases … the temperature will increase.” CO2 in the atmosphere absorbs reflected light, adding heat to the Earth system.

Greenhouse effect: Greenhouses store heat because light changes when reflected. Solar energy enters and passes through a greenhouse glass, or our atmosphere, at “short” wavelengths (0.1 – 4 microns or millionths of a meter). Once reflected, light is polarized and has a longer wavelength (4-50 microns). Carbon dioxide absorbs light at around 15-microns, other gases, such as methane, absorb at other wavelengths, and this absorbed light energy adds heat to the Earth system.

“Global warming” defined: Temperature is always fluctuating, but Climatologists have defined “Global warming” as a relatively large change in a short time, specifically: 0.4°C in one century. Earth’s temperature has increased by 0.8°C in one century, a state of global warming. (Goddard)

Weather vs. Climate: Weather is local and short term; climate is regional or global, and long term. A cold winter is weather, and does not indicate the direction of climate change.

Forest and Mine Site. 09/15/2009 © Greenpeace / John WoodsA thin border separates the Boreal Forest from an open-pit mine in Alberta, Canada’s Tar Sands region. 09/15/2009 © Greenpeace / John Woods

Do humans contribute to global heating? Yes. We contribute to heating because we produce CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and because we reduce carbon-sequestering plant life. The tars sands in Canada does both, producing vast amounts of carbon while destroying forests.

Human carbon emissions. World carbon emissions through Fossil fuels, cement, land-use change, and other sources were about 1 billion tons / year a century ago. Those emissions are now about 10 billions tons / year (9.9 billion tons in 2013, CO2Now). You may hear of “carbon dioxide emissions” around 35 billions tons, and this is because a ton of carbon produces about three-and-a-half tons of CO2.

Rate of change: These emissions are now about 61% higher than they were in 1990 (the Kyoto Protocol reference year), and still increasing at about 2.5% per year, on track to double in 28 years.

Sources of CO2: Carbon emissions are dominated by China, the US, Europe, and now India. The primary sources are coal, oil, gas, and cement manufacturing. Meanwhile, carbon uptake by plant life is reduced through deforestation and ocean acidification.

CO2 in atmosphere: Before the industrial revolution, some two hundred years ago, atmospheric carbon-dioxide fluctuated around 280 parts per million (ppm). Today, by March 2015, CO2 has reached 401.5 ppm (Scripps), a 43% increase in two centuries.

Rate of CO2 increase has, itself, been accelerating. In the 1950s, atmospheric CO2 was increasing at about 0.5 ppm per year; by 1970, by 1 ppm per year, and is now increasing by 2.1 ppm / year.

Are humans the primary cause of global heating? Yes, this is extremely likely. For anything to heat or cool, a force is necessary, called a “radiative forcing,” measured in watts per square meter, (w/m2). Smaller forcings include ozone, water vapour, carbon soot, sulfates, land use changes, Earth’s albedo (reflective quality), and reduced ocean CO2 absorption due to acidic water. Intermittent volcanic aerosols have a cooling effect. These smaller forcings somewhat offeset each other. There are three larger forcings, shown here as changes between 1880 and 2011:

1. Human gases: + 3.10 w/m2 (heating)

2. Solar variations: + 0.12 w/m2 (heating)

3. Human aerosols: – 1.60 w/m2 (cooling)

This chart below (James Hansen, NASA) shows the result of adding all these forcings, large and small, heating and cooling: a + 1.5 w/m2 heating effect, primarily caused by human greenhouse gases. We do not know of any forcing greater than the human greenhouse gases, and to this we must add the human reduction in carbon-sequestering ground cover. If anyone believes there is a source of global heating greater than human activity, ask them to state what that forcing is. Of course, unknown factors may exist, but the available information shows us that humans stand out as the primary cause of modern global heating since 1750.

Global climate Forcings.  © James Hansen, NASA

Feedback and runaway: The danger civilization faces is that we can easily lose control of global warming. The heating itself causes feedbacks within the ecological system, which in turn increase heating. These include:

1. Methane from melting permafrost, a more potent greenhouse gas than CO2.

2. Albedo: Ice melt reduces reflection, and increases heat absorption.

3. Water Vapour: Warming adds moisture, a greenhouse gas, to the atmosphere.

4. Forest loss: Each year, we lose about 15 million hectares of forests.

5. Acidic seas: reduces aquatic life and carbon capture.

6. Fires: A hotter climate increases fires that release CO2 and reduce forest cover.

California's Lake Oroville. © Justin Sullivan, Getty Images

The effects: NASA, the UN, and scientific agencies around the world have observed and reported on the effects of global warming. The picture above (Justin Sullivan, Getty Images) shows the effects of drought on California’s Lake Oroville. Here are some of the observed effects of global warming:

Heat: Earth’s average temperature has increased by 0.8°C in one century.

Arctic: average temperature increase is about twice the global average.

Ocean temperature has increased to depths of 3,000 meters.

Rate of warming has nearly doubled in the last 100 years.

Warmest years: Of the last 12 years, 11 rank among the warmest since 1850.

Ice melt: Glaciers and polar ice melting in Northern and Southern hemispheres.

Sea level has risen about 20 cm in a century, and the rate of rise is increasing.

Extreme weather: more intense tropical storms, heat waves, drought.

Precipitation has increased in eastern Americas, northern Europe, and Asia.

Drying and drought in Southwest US, Mexico, Mediterranean, southern Africa.

Species: Diversity loss due to climate changes and habitat destruction.

Agriculture disruptions, such as reduced yields from warmer and wetter climates.

Ocean Acidification: The oceans are about 30% more acidic compared to the pre-industrial era, killing off sea life and reducing vital coral reef ecosystems.

Historic Climate Change: Denialists use past fluctuations to proclaim that modern warming is not caused by human activity, cherry-picking isolated data to misrepresent global warming. Here is a brief history of Earth’s changing climate:

Young Earth: Earth formed 4.5 billion years ago as molten rock, and cooled over the next 3 billion years. Volcanoes released gases: hydrogen, carbon dioxide, sulfates, and nitrogen. Water condensed, bacteria formed, and photosynthesis produced oxygen, which poisoned bacteria, the first major extinction. This comprised about half of Earth’s history.

First warming: About 2 billion years ago, some bacteria learned to breath oxygen; released CO2, and Earth heated up, the first global warming, and new extinctions.

Plant boom, 550-470 million years ago (mya): As CO2 increased and oxygen levels dropped, plant life recovered, captured carbon, and Earth cooled. Ninety percent of Earth’s history had passed.

Animal boom, 450-350 mya: The plant die-off released CO2; fish, amphibians, and reptiles released more CO2; and Earth warmed.

Land plants, 385 – 265 mya: The boom in land plants captured carbon, and Earth cooled. This boom of life created the hydrocarbons, oil and coal, that we now burn.

Land animals, 265-65mya: Again, the plant die-off and animal boom released CO2, and Earth warmed. By 100mya, CO2 content reached 2,000 ppm, and the average temperature was about 11°C hotter than today.

Ice ages: 65 million years ago, an asteroid hit Earth near Yucatan, Mexico. Earth has generally cooled since then, punctuated by warming fluctuations and ice ages. Forests captured carbon, and humans evolved. By the time humans controlled fire, about 99.9% of Earth history had passed.

Temperature and CO2, over 400,000 years. © M. Ernst, Woods Hole Research Center

Modern warming: The chart above (ice core data, M. Ernst, Woods Hole Research Center), shows that for the last 400,000 years, Earth’s temperature and CO2 levels have fluctuated in lock-step, CO2 levels between 200-300 ppm, and temperature between 9°C cooler and 3°C warmer than today. About 3,200 years ago, CO2 and temperature spiked, causing worldwide flooding as recorded in human cultural stories. About 300 years ago, industrial advancement increased coal and oil use, releasing CO2, and heating Earth. CO2 levels have now reached 400ppm, and temperatures have risen almost 1°C. The data suggests that Earth may be headed for severe temperature increases, due to this CO2 build up in the atmosphere.

The Future: If humans act wisely — if we reduce consumption, stabilize population, and abandon hydrocarbon energy — we could reverse the modern warming that we have set in motion. If we fail, we face runaway heating.

A 2009 MIT study estimated that there is now a 90% chance that by 2100, CO2 levels will reach 550ppm and Earth’s temperature will reach 5.2°C above pre-industrial temperatures.

At those temperatures, melting permafrost will release enough methane to send Earth into a Mesozoic-scale heating, as Earth experienced a hundred-million years ago. Organisms could live in that environment, but humans would have a difficult time, so say the least. Sea rise will wipe out thousands of cities and displace billions of people. Few really want to face this. I do not enjoy writing about it. Avoidance, denial, despair, and anger are completely natural reactions.

Nevertheless, to avoid these outcomes, caring citizens must speak up and help inspire the large-scale and realistic actions that will reverse carbon release into Earth’s atmosphere and halt the warming trend.

Rex Weyler is an author, journalist and co-founder of Greenpeace International.


Additional sources:

Human greenhouse gas forcing: David Biello, in Scientific American, Nov. 30, 2009: http://ift.tt/1ABwqWW; Ad Hoc Study Group on Carbon Dioxide and Climate (1979): “Carbon Dioxide and Climate: A Scientific Assessment.” US National Academy of Sciences: http://ift.tt/18e1StT. V. Ramanathan, M.S. Lian, and R.D. Cess (1979): “Increased Atmospheric CO2 .. Radiative Energy Balance and Surface Temperature.”

Agriculture disruptions, Example: coffee yields in Columbia; NY Times (March 9, 2011. http://ift.tt/1htVZPM.

Global Temperature: Columbia University: Global Temperature and Temperature 2014-15

Sea Rise: By 2100: 0.5 – 1.2 meters: IPPC 2013; Changing rate: Columbia Univ.

Runaway warming: Rapid, non-linear change: R. Jones, Victoria Univ.

       Abrupt Non-Linear Climate Change: S. Schneider, OECD

Ocean Acidification: InterAcademy Panel, 105 science academies recommended CO2 emissions reduced by 50% from 1990 levels by 2050.

Recent News Articles:

Heat Wave Deaths in India

New Arctic Ice Mass Destabilized

California Redwoods Stressed by Drought

Insurance Company Divests Coal Due to Global Warming

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Osram Develops High-Power Duris S 10 LED as an Alternative to Low-Lumen COBs

Technical Data:
GW P7LM32.EM GW P7LP32.EM
Footprint 7.0 mm x 7.0 mm 7.0 mm x 7.0 mm
CRI (color rendering index) 80 80
CCT (correlated color temperature) 2700 K – 6500 K 2700 K – 6500 K
Luminous flux (for CRI min. 80, 300 mA, 85° C) typ. 1050 lm @ 3000 K typ. 1400 lm @ 3000 K
Forward voltage 28 V 37 V
Beam angle 120° 120°

“The new Duris S 10 with its typical luminous flux packages of 1050 and 1400 lumen and a light-emitting surface of only 7.7 mm in diameter forms the basis for compact optics and extremely narrow beam angles”, explained Vincent Lee, Product Manager at Osram Opto Semiconductors. The lumen packages have been chosen specifically for standard applications such as MR16 retrofits, and enable lamp and luminaire designs to be created on the basis of a single Duris S 10. This in turn helps prevent multiple shadow effects – a clear advantage over the frequently used multi-LED clusters. Both single-spot versions have the same footprint of 7.0 mm x 7.0 mm, offering flexibility in the design of compact luminaires with high luminous flux. Thanks to the small size of the LED, the design of the optics is also simpler, which means that it is easier to integrate standard accessories such as lenses and reflectors.

Both Duris S 10 CAS LEDs are binned according to the familiar MacAdam ellipses, resulting in a more uniform color appearance. In view of the surface-mounted design of the LED, a pc board has to be incorporated in the luminaire. This does, however, open up numerous design options such as integrating thermal fuses, connectors or driver components on the LED board. In standard CoB (Chip-on-Board) solutions up to now, these functions have had to be accommodated on a separate pc board, taking up more space. Compared in particular to these established solutions, the two new Duris S 10 LEDs with their many benefits are excellent alternatives in this luminous flux category.

For more information on the Duris S series and the entire product family please refer to the product catalog.

About Osram Opto Semiconductors:
Osram, with its headquarters in Munich, is one of the two leading lighting manufacturers in the world. Its subsidiary, Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbH in Regensburg (Germany), offers its customers solutions based on semiconductor technology for lighting, sensor and visualization applications. Osram Opto Semiconductors has production sites in Regensburg (Germany), Penang (Malaysia) and Wuxi (China). Its headquarters for North America is in Sunnyvale (USA). Its headquarters for the Asia region is in Hong Kong. Osram Opto Semiconductors also has sales offices throughout the world. For more information go to www.osram-os.com.

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With Five Tailored White LEDs, Sharp Lights Path to Success for Retailers

As online shopping continues to grow in popularity, retailers with physical locations are eager to enhance their offline retail experiences for consumers. Sharp’s latest LEDs are a new way for bricks and mortar stores to truly shine. The new Tailored White family meets the unique requirements of specific products in the fashion and grocery segments by employing innovative phosphor technology and precise wavelength control. These new Mega Zenigatas also deliver high-CRI lighting for outstanding overall colour quality with all the efficiency and low maintenance costs LEDs are known for.

The model optimized for grocery meat cases has a CCT rating of 2000 K, with the bread, vegetable and fresh models coming in at colour temperatures of 2400 K, 5100 K and 5400 K respectively. Although the Tailored White family claims Ra values as high as 97 and efficiencies up to 97 lumens per watt, it is the innovative matching of the LEDs characteristics to the produce and goods on sale that puts retailers’ wares in the best light.

When supplied as integrated Intermo modules, Sharp Tailored White LEDs ensure simple and fast integration into luminaires and lighting designs while reducing development and inventory costs. Sharp Intermo modules attach to the heat sink with just two screws, support a wide range of reflectors, and ship with integrated thermal interface material and solder-free connections.

The full range of Tailored White models for grocery and retail are now available from Sharp Devices Europe. For additional information, please visit www.sharpleds.eu

About Sharp Devices Europe (SDE):
Sharp Devices Europe GmbH, a limited company based in Munich, Germany, is a subsidiary of Sharp Corporation in Osaka, Japan. Worldwide, Sharp develops digital core technologies for next-generation electronic products and applications. SDE’s broad portfolio includes more than 2,000 components: up to 90″ TFT LCDs, 0.5W-100W LEDs, opto-electronics, CCD and CMOS camera sensors, RF and LSI components, and market-leading housing and integration technologies. This broad portfolio makes innovative solutions possible, in particular for applications in automotive electronics, mobile telephony and communications technology, industrial automation, TV and consumer electronics, e-signage and LED lighting technology. Innovation, quality and the sustainable use of natural resources are the focal points of Sharp’s technology and product development work with the aim of improving the quality of all our lives and protecting the environment through one-of-a-kind technologies.

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Everfine GO-R5000 Full-Field Speed Goniophotometer

Main Features:
•    Integrate multi goniophotometers in 1 facility by the multi detectors, it can realize near-field, quasi-far-field(optional) and far-field measurement as well as spatial luminance (optional) and colorimetric quantities measurement(optional).
•    Different relative spectral responsibity curves for different photometer detectors.
•    Super high stray light rejection performance.
•    Extremely wide dynamic range(100 times wider).
•    Half short the test distance in the dark room by the a second fixed mirror.
•    Fully meet the standard requirements of EN13032-1, CIE70, CIE84, CIE121 and IESNA LM-79,etc.
•    USA, Germany and China Patent Issued.
•    National High-Tech program (863 Program) Research Achievement.
•    Widely applied in NVLAP accredited labs.

Main Functions:
•    Photometric parameters test: Luminous intensity distribution curve, luminous intensity data, efficient light beam angle, isocandela diagram, isolux diagram, total luminous flux, zonal luminous flux, luminaires efficiency, utilization coefficient, maximum ratio of space to height, luminaire budgetary diagram, luminance limitation curves, glare grade etc.
•    The averaged and non-uniformity of colorimetric quantities and luminance can be obtained.
•    Electrical quantities: voltage, current, power, power factor, frequency, harmonics, etc.

GO-R5000 is widely applied for the measurement of luminous intensity distribution, total luminous flux, non-uniformity of luminance & colorimetric quantities and other photometric & colorimetric parameters of various type of luminaires and lamps, including street lights, indoor lights, flood lights, auto lights, signal lights, LEDs, halogen lamps, fluorescent lamps, HIDs etc. The test file can be export in GOS, CIE, CEN, IES, TM14, LDT, EUT format etc.

For additional information, please contact Everfine at global@everfine.net or visit www.everfine.net

About Everfine:
Everfine (Stock Code: 300306) is the stock market listed company in LED & lighting measurement instrument. She is located in Binjiang National Hi-Tech Zone, Hangzhou, China, the so called Heaven Silicon Valley. Everfine is a National Certificated High-tech Enterprise, Supportive Member of the CIE, ISO9001 Registered Firm, Government Certificated Software Enterprise & Software Product Enterprise, and owns a Province Level High-tech R&D Center, and NVLAP accredited Lab and CNAS accredited Lab.
Everfine has undertaken projects of National 863 programs and local government Key Science & Technology Programs for many times. Everfine owns more than 30 Innovation patents, including Germany, US ones. Meanwhile, Everfine is active in the standardization work of the CIE, IEC and domestic of China.

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BluGlass Demonstrates Improved Performance Results for Green RPCVD Manufactured p-GaN LEDs

Electroluminescence Data (Wafer Quick Test)* At 20 mA At 50 mA
Light Output (mW) 0.9 2.5
Vf (V) 3.5 4.5
Peak Wavelength (nm) 520 517
Full Width at Half Maximum (nm) 33 37

This indicates that the RPCVD process’ low temperature benefits are helping to improve green LED device performance through the reduced degradation of the temperature sensitive MQW layers. BluGlass will continue to conduct experimentation to further validate these results.

BluGlass’ Chief Operations and Technology Officer, Dr. Ian Mann said today “This is great early performance data, which we expect to continue to improve further; especially given that BluGlass has only recently attempted growing green MQWs using MOCVD. Our recent focus has been on optimising the quality of the RPCVD p-GaN overgrowth process. It is very encouraging that for the first time, in a side by side RPCVD p-GaN versus MOCVD p-GaN overgrowth experiment, to show that RPCVD has provided a performance edge in LED efficiency.”

Dr. Mann added “The significant efforts in improving blue LEDs over the last 12 months has shown to be readily transferable to the efforts in green LEDs.”

At the Company’s AGM at the end of 2014, BluGlass outlined its intentions to expand the RPCVD research into new, high growth market applications with strong potential for a low temperature deposition technology such as power electronics, green and yellow LEDs and UV LEDs. The value of this action was recently reconfirmed by Veeco Instruments Inc, asking to evaluate the RPCVD p-GaN for both green LEDs and power electronic applications.

Green LEDs are important for RGB (Red, Green and Blue) LED applications that enable the device to have full colour control. The LED industry is very interested in the possibility of a cost effective RGB solution to create more natural looking light and is expected to be popular for segments of the general lighting market.

The value proposition for RPCVD for green LED applications is similar to that of high brightness blue LEDs. The low temperature process is expected to offer performance advantages; however the value proposition is even greater for the green LED market opportunity. This is because green LEDs require high indium content MQWs and therefore benefit from a lower temperature growth process. Low temperature growth enables both; less degradation of the MQW, and provides higher indium concentration (the core material required to create the green wavelength). While RPCVD grown green MQWs have not yet been demonstrated (the results presented to date are for MOCVD grown MQWs) we believe the combination of an all RPCVD grown MQW and p-GaN is compelling from a performance and cost perspective.

IP Update:
In addition BluGlass has recently had another core patent granted in the US and an additional two patents accepted in Europe and Australia.

About BluGlass:
BluGlass Limited (winner of the 2013 Australian Cleantech Competition) is an Australian green technology company formed to commercialise a breakthrough in the Semiconductor Industry. BluGlass has invented a new process using Remote Plasma Chemical Vapour Deposition (RPCVD) to grow semiconductor materials such as gallium nitride (GaN) and indium gallium nitride (InGaN), crucial to the production of high efficiency devices such as next generation lighting technology Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) with advanced low cost potential.
The RPCVD technology, because of its low temperature and highly flexible nature, offers many potential benefits over existing technologies including higher efficiency, lower cost and greater scalability.

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Power Conversion Efficiency – Key for Stand-Alone Solar Powered Lighting in Nordic Regions

At first glance, the best approach to make a solar powered outdoor lighting product work at winter in the far North is to go for state-of-the-art components: Photovoltaic panels, batteries and super effective LEDs. However, the heart of the systems is actually what binds these components together: The power supply and the battery management system.

With a very limited amount of PV power input during the short winter days, the energy conversion efficiency and the stand-by power consumption of the management system are crucial factors. In this project, a prototype channeled the power generated in the PV panel to the battery with an extreme efficiency of 98-99%. Most commercial LED power supplies consume 8-15% of the load. Nevertheless, the same prototype discharged a 10-25W output from the battery to the LED with an impressive conversion efficiency of 97.5%.

10W version was prototyped as well. In this case, high efficiencies are even harder to obtain, but even this model produced similar impressive conversion efficiencies.

The results have great potential in actual solutions that are ready for the market. Both prototypes were specified in close cooperation with private companies to enable direct use in real products. Hence, the prototypes were tested in five different outdoor products with LED.

And who says it will stop here? The project generated an advanced design and dimensioning tool that can manage all of the limiting conditions. All parts are highly dependent on temperature conditions in the environment and the PV panels obviously depend on latitude and shading conditions. Hence, all local conditions as well as the dynamical and technical performance figures of potential components can be loaded into the design tool, and an optimized solution can be designed.

This design tool is valuable not only in stand-alone solar systems in the Nordic region but essentially all over the world. Furthermore, the prototyped power managements system can be applied to many other PV-systems, as for instance stand-alone outdoor surveillance and intelligent parking meters.

The project was sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency (EUDP) and was managed by the DTU Fotonik (Technical University of Denmark) in close collaboration with DTU Energy and DTU Elektro. Three different private companies participated (Out-sider, AKJ Inventions and Morten Lyhne).

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Congo logging chaos leaves people and bonobos at the sharp end

A Cotrefor personnel truck in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)

“Chaos” and “chaotic” are frequently – perhaps even overly – used words. One dictionary definition is a “total lack of organization or order”. That can be said certainly of the industrial logging sector in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

Companies pay little heed to regulations, promises to forest communities go unfulfilled and government institutions show little or no will to hold them to account and protect the DRC’s vast natural heritage and resources.

But at the same time this chaos is organised and is ordered.  It is to a large extent engineered by officials and companies for their own benefit. The institutions that should govern the forestry sector and enforce the law are not functioning effectively. There is a woeful lack of transparency, with logging contracts not made public or only made public years after they were signed and no reliable official data available on permits, production and exports. Corruption is endemic and it appears that illegal activities in industrial logging concessions are the norm.

In its new report published today, Trading in Chaos, Greenpeace Africa reveals the findings of two years of investigations into the operations both at home and abroad of one of the key players in the DRC logging chaos, Lebanese-owned Cotrefor.

The results are a depressing cocktail of unpaid taxes, shocking mistreatment of employees, rampant irregularities in operational procedure and exceeding allocated quotas of the endangered tree species Afrormosia that are permitted to be logged.

Furthermore, such poor practice is evidently not proving a hindrance to Cotrefor exporting and trading their wood worldwide to destinations including China, the USA and the European Union. And this is despite the fact that legislation such as the European Union Timber Regulation (EUTR), exists with the sole purpose of preventing illegally sourced timber or timber products being placed on the European market.

Greenpeace has regularly demonstrated how sadly easy it is to become an illegal logger these days. And you can still ask European authorities yourself if you do not believe us.

Predictably the ones to suffer from the organised chaos in the DRC are members of the communities who form part of the estimated 40 million people who rely on the country’s vast forests for their livelihood.

They see little of the profits made by Cotrefor and other companies, valuable species are often logged out completely from their areas.  Social obligations made between the communities and those wishing to begin logging operations, such as a school, healthcare or infrastructure near their land, are often not fully realized.

Adult Bonobo in Bonobo sanctuary, Democratic Republic of Congo. The Bonobo is one of Humankind's closest relatives and is threatened with extinction from destruction of habitat. Greenpeace fact finding tour aimed at documenting the social and environmental impacts of industrial logging. 10/10/2005 © Greenpeace / Filip Verbelen

And it is not just people who suffer. One of mankind’s oldest relatives, the Bonobo, is found only in the DRC. Through its investigations Greenpeace Africa discovered that forest clearance for roads and other infrastructure is opening up vital habitat to poachers and further threatening the endangered ape near protected areas such as the Lomako-Yokokala faunal reserve.

Yet as depressing and familiar as this chaos and lack of impunity sounds, there is an alternative to the concession based model of industrial logging in the DRC. There is in existence a law that would concentrate more responsibility for their own lands in the hands of local communities.

The problem has been that many people are unaware of its existence and are not being provided the tools to implement it.

The Congo river. Bongandanga village can be seen on the opposite bank. Plundered forests, physical intimidation and unfulfilled promises is the legacy of the Democratic Republic of Congo’s broken industrial logging model according to new findings from Greenpeace, after the environmental organisation visited the communities affected by the operations of logging companies. 08/08/2014 © Clément Tardif / Greenpeace

Ultimately, in order to control this organised chaos and to stop companies like Cotrefor operating with total impunity, the DRC government needs to take action. They must fully investigate Allegations in the Greenpeace Africa report and the existing moratorium on all new logging titles should be maintained until all conditions are met.

Furthermore to prevent the steady flow of illegal Congo Basin timber overseas, including from Cotrefor, the governments of timber-importing nations such as EU Member States, China and the USA need to open investigations immediately into companies trading timber products from the DRC.

Authorities must use every route open to them, including international human rights and labour laws and conventions, CITES, the Lacey Act and the EUTR, to stop and prevent illegal and destructive trade.

Only if these measures are taken can the chaotic cycle of illegal logging in the Congo be broken and can the squandering of the country’s vast natural heritage that form part of the world’s second-largest rain-forested area be stemmed.

Raoul Monsembula is the country director for the Democratic Republic of Congo with Greenpeace Africa

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