In many cases LED drivers manage their output power with PWM controlled switched mode power supply-topologies. The output voltages are filtered and normally DC voltages with low ripple apply at the output connectors of LED drivers. During dimming these circuits can behave very differently and
therefore safety issues may arise. Siegfried Luger, CEO at Luger Research e.U. and John Showell, Product Safety Consultant at Product Approvals Ltd. have a closer look at those operation modes and the requirements on voltage limits.
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